MA Bibliography – Complete

The Repeat Photography Project (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 17 June 2018).The Repeat Photography Project (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 20 June 2018).

What is Repeat Photography? – Exploring Land Cover Change Through Repeat Photography (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 20 June 2018).

The Social Turn: Collaboration and its Discontents :: Artificial hells; participatory art and the politics of spectatorship (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 22 June 2018).

The Collaborative Turn :: Taking the matter into common hands; contemporary art and collaborative practices (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 22 June 2018).İki

Deniz Arası – Between Two Seas – Home | Facebook (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 24 June 2018).

Highland fury as Trump rival drives golf course plan forward | UK news | The Guardian (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 25 June 2018).

Embo’s Coul Links golf course backed by councillors – BBC News (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 25 June 2018).

Councillors defer decision on Coul Links golf course – BBC News (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 25 June 2018).

Coul Links Conservation Case | Our Work – The RSPB (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 25 June 2018).

Highland councillors defy their officials by voicing unanimous support for Coul Links plans | Press and Journal (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 25 June 2018).

jenny odell • travel by approximation (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 27 June 2018).

You Talking To Me? On Curating Group Shows that Give You a Chance to Join the Group :: What makes a great exhibition? (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 8 July 2018).

John Hallmén (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 8 July 2018).

John Hallmén (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 10 July 2018).

walead beashty cyanotypes – Google Search (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 13 July 2018).

Alex MacLean, Aerial Photographer (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 13 August 2018).

Marilyn Bridges photography: Ancient and Contemporary locations worldwide, Prints and books available. (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 13 August 2018).

Yann Arthus-Bertrand (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 13 August 2018).

The Dunes — Sophie Gerrard (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 17 August 2018).

POWERS OF TEN AND THE RELATIVE SIZE OF THINGS IN THE UNIVERSE | Eames Office (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 20 August 2018).

Kevin Murray Golf Photography | Golf Photos | Top Golf Photographer (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 22 August 2018).

Golf Photography – Mark Alexander (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 22 August 2018).

11 tips: How to make amazing golf course photos – Golf Photography by Kaia Means (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 22 August 2018).

Paul Severn Golf Photographer /Golf Course Images/Golf Tournaments/Golf Picture Library (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 22 August 2018).

Power and the Camera: Gregory Halpern Talks Intuition, Reflection and Representation • Magnum Photos (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 27 October 2018).

Learning from the Master • Inge Morath • Magnum Photos (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 27 October 2018).

History of Art Timeline (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2018).

History of Photography (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2018).

Biography of Axel Hutte | Widewalls (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 20 November 2018).

Biography of Axel Hutte | Widewalls (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Edward Burtynsky (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Work – Simon Roberts (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 27 November 2018).

Coming-soon–of-love-war : lynsey addario, photographer (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 27 November 2018).

Biography — Edward Burtynsky (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 2 December 2018).

Edward Burtynsky (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 3 December 2018).

Axel Hütte | artnet (no date). Available at:ütte/ (Accessed: 3 December 2018).

Cindy Sherman: Me, myself and I | Art and design | The Guardian (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 14 December 2018).

THE DETACHED GAZE | THOUGHTS AND SOURCES ON ALTERNATIVE WAYS OF SEEING (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 16 December 2018).

The Anthropocene Project — Edward Burtynsky (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 9 January 2019).

Sprawling Anthropocene project shows humanity’s enormous impact on the planet | The Star (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 9 January 2019).

Edward Burtynsky – The Anthropocene Project – Photo Review (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 9 January 2019).

Anthropocene art show and documentary will shock you with a view of human impact on the planet – The Globe and Mail (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 9 January 2019).

Aerial Photographs Convey Humanity’s Devastating Effects on Nature (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 9 January 2019).

Anthropocene reveals the scale of Earth’s existential crisis – NOW Magazine (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 10 January 2019).

Landscape Stories: 80/2014 Axel Hütte (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 10 January 2019).

Axel Hütte (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 11 January 2019).

Axel Hütte (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 11 January 2019).

Aerographica – About (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 30 January 2019).

Safety in Numbness: Some remarks on the problems of ‘Late Photography’’ – David Campany’ (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 30 January 2019).

Unequal Scenes – Locations (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 31 January 2019).

Layla Curtis (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 4 February 2019).

Matthew Murray — Elliott Halls Gallery (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 4 February 2019).

Sean O’Hagan | 1000 Words (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 14 February 2019).

Francis Hodgson | 1000 Words (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 14 February 2019).

Charlotte Cotton | 1000 Words (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 14 February 2019).

20+ Examples Of Media Manipulating The Truth That Will Make You Question The News (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 14 February 2019).

Pete Davis Tin Sheds of Wales (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 14 February 2019).

gaze | The Chicago School of Media Theory (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 3 March 2019).

Jane Austen believed beauty could come in every shape and size. What else can she teach us about wellness? – The Washington Post (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 18 March 2019).

Saddleworth — Matthew Murray Photography (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 25 March 2019).

Menie: TRUMPED — Alicia Bruce (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 17 June 2019).

chrystel lebas home (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 20 June 2019).

(221) Charlotte Davies – Éphémère, Responsive Environment 1998 – YouTube (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 17 November 2019).

Say NO to a golf course at Coul Links | Scottish Wildlife Trust (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 18 November 2019).

Glasgow School – Wikipedia (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 18 November 2019).

Coul Links – Beyond the Noise (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 18 November 2019).

Zeeland flood museum – Google Search (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 26 November 2019).

watersnoodmuseum – Google Search (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 29 November 2019).

Scottish Government – DPEA – Case Details (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 1 December 2019).

Photographs Gallery — Edward Burtynsky (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 3 December 2019).

Adams, R. (1994) Why People Photograph. 1st edn. New York: Aperture.

Alexander, B. and C. (2011) Forty Below. Manston: Arctica Publishing.

Arnold, D. (2011) ‘Hegel and Ecologically Oriented System Theory’, Journal of Philosophy. Kathmandu, United States Kathmandu, Kathmandu: Society for Philosophy and Literary Studies, 7(16), p. 0_3. Available at:

Arthus-Bertrand, Y. (2001) The Earth From The Air 365 Days. London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd.

Auge, M. (2008) Non-Places: An Introduction to Supermodernity. London, New York: Verso.

Azoulay, A. (2016) ‘Photography Consists of Collaboration: Susan Meiselas, Wendy Ewald, and Ariella Azoulay’,

Camera Obscura: Feminism, Culture, and Media Studies, 31(1 91), pp. 187–201. doi: 10.1215/02705346-3454496.Barker, E. (1999) ‘Introduction [IN] Contemporary cultures of display’, in Barker, E. and University, O. (eds) Contemporary cultures of display. New Haven: Yale University Press in association with the Open University, pp. 8–21.

Barnes, R. (no date) Civil War — Richard Barnes. Available at: (Accessed: 9 August 2018).

Barrett, T. (2000) Criticizing Photographs: An Introduction to Understanding Images. New York: McGraw Hill.

Barthes, R. (1977) Image Music Text. New York: Hill and Wang.

Barthes, R. (1981) Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. New York: Hill and Wang.

Bate, D. (2016) Photography; The Key Concepts. 2nd edn, The Key Concepts. 2nd edn. London and New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Bear, J. and Albers, K. P. (2017) Before-and-After Photography; Histories and Contexts. 1st edn. London; New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Benjamin, W. (1931) Selected Writings 2, Part 2 1931-1934. Edited by G. Eiland, H., Jennings, M.W., and Smith. Cambridge, MA and London: Belknap Press.

Berger, J. (2013) Understanding a Photograph. Edited by G. Dyer. 2013: Penguin Books Ltd.

Berger, J. (1972) Ways of Seeing. London: Penguin Books Ltd.

Billcliffe, R. (2002) The Glasgow Boys : the Glasgow school of painting, 1875-1895. John Murray.

Boerma, P. (2006) ‘Assessing Forest Cover Change in Eritrea—A Historical Perspective’, Mountain Research and Development. doi: 10.1659/0276-4741(2006)026[0041:AFCCIE]2.0.CO;2.

Bright, D. (no date) The Machine in The Garden Revisited American Environmentalism and Photographic Aesthetics. Available at: (Accessed: 14 March 2019).

Brogden, J. (2019) Photography and the Non-Place: The Cultural Erasure of the City. First. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bullock, S. H. et al. (2004) ‘Twentieth century demographic changes in cirio and cardón in Baja California, México’, Journal of Biogeography, 32(1), pp. 127–143. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2004.01152.x.

Burkhauser, J., Canongate Publishing and Red Ochre Press (no date) Glasgow girls : women in art and design, 1880-1920.

Burton, C., Mitchell, J. T. and Cutter, S. L. (2011) ‘Evaluating post-Katrina recovery in Mississippi using repeat photography’, Disasters, 35(3), pp. 488–509. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2010.01227.x.

Burtynsky, E., Baichwal, J. and De Pencier, N. (2018) Anthropocene. Gottingen: Steidl.

Campany, D. (ed.) (2007) The Cinematic. London, Cambridge: Whitechapel Gallery and MIT Press.

Carroll, H. (2018) Photographers on Photography: How the Masters See, Think & Shoot. London: Laurence King Publishing Ltd.

Cupido, P. (2019) Ephemere. Zurich: Bildhalle.

Darwent, C. (2007) Weblet Importer. Available at: (Accessed: 1 April 2019).

Day, A. (2019) Every Photograph You’ve Ever Taken Is a Lie: Steve McCurry, Tom Hunter, and the Problem With Visual Storytellers | Fstoppers, Fstoppers. Available at: (Accessed: 13 February 2019).

Delaney, H. and Baker, S. (eds) (2015) Another London. London: Tate Publishing.

Deleuze, G. (1997) Essays Critical and Clinical. University of Minnesota Press.

Deleuze, G. (2002) Desert Islands: and Other Texts, 1953-1974. Los Angeles: Semiotexte.

Deleuze, G. (1997) Negotiations. NYC: Columbia University Press.

Derges, S. (no date) Susan Derges. Available at: (Accessed: 6 July 2018).

Dupre, B. (2007) 50 Ideas You Really Need to Know- Philosophy. First. London: Quercus Editions, Ltd.

Durden, M. (ed.) (2013) 50 Key Writers on Photography. First. Milton Park: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Emerson, R. W. (2000) The Essential Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Edited by B. Atkinson. New York: Modern Library; Random House.

Ewing, W. A. (2014) Landmark: The Fields of Landscape Photography. New York: Thames and Hudson.

Flusser, V. (1983) Towards a philosophy of photography, English. London: Reaktion Books Ltd. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9406(10)62747-2.

Garnett, J. and Meiselas, S. (no date) ‘ON THE RIGHTS OF MOLOTOVMAN Appropriation and the art of context’. Available at: (Accessed: 15 June 2018).

Gerrard, S. (no date) The Dunes. Available at:

Gill, S. (no date) Stephen Gill Portfolio. Available at: (Accessed: 6 July 2018).

Groom, A. (ed.) (2013) Time. London, Cambridge: Whitechapel Gallery and MIT Press.

Hand, M. (2012) Ubiquitous Photography. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Hariman, R. and Lucaites, J. L. (2016) The Public Image: Photography and Civic Spectatorship. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Heiferman, M. (2012) Photography Changes Everything. First. New York: Aperture.

Hendrick, L. E. and Copenheaver, C. A. (2009) ‘Using Repeat Landscape Photography to Assess Vegetation Changes in Rural Communities of the Southern Appalachian Mountains in Virginia, USA’, Mountain Research and Development, 29(1), pp. 21–29. doi: 10.1659/mrd.1028.

Hooper, R. (no date) Jesus, Buddha, Krishna &Lao Tzu: The Parallel Sayings. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Company. Inc.

Hume, D. (2015) A Treatise of Human Nature. USA: Jefferson Publication.

Hurn, D. and Jay, B. (2009) On Being a Photographer. Third. Anacortes, WA: LensWork Publishing.

Jay, B. (2000) Occam’s Razor: An Outside-In View of Contemporary Photography. Third. Tucson, AZ: Nazraeli Press.

Johnson P and Rogers, G. (2003) ‘Ephemeral wetlands and their turfs.’, Science for Conservation, 230.

Juniper, A. (2003) Wabi Sabi – the japanese art of impermanance. First. North Clarendon, VT: Tuttle Publishing.

Kempton, B. (2018) Wabi Sabi – Japanese Wisdom for a Perfectly Imperfect Life. London: Piatkus.

Kholief, O. (ed.) (2015) Moving Image. London, Cambridge: Whitechapel Gallery and MIT Press.

Kleon, A. (2012) Steal Like an Artist: 10 Things Nobody Told You about Being Creative, Steal Like an Artist. New York: Workman Publishing Company. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.

Kleon, A. (2014) Show Your Work: 10 Ways to Share Your Creativity and Get Discovered. New York: Workman Publishing Company.

Klett, M. (2003) Yosemite in Time. Available at:

Klett, M. (1979) Rephotographic Survey Project. Available at:

Lao-Tzu (1993) Tao Te Ching. Edited by S. Addiss and S. Lombardo. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc.

Lao-Tzu (2011) Tao Te Ching: The Book of the Way. Edited by S. Mitchell. London: Kyle Books.

Lebas, C. (2006) Between Dog and Wolf. London: Azure Publishing.

MacCaig, N. (no date) Between Mountain and Sea: Poems from Assynt. Edited by R. Watson. 2018: Polygon Books.

McCall Smith, A. (ed.) (2018) A Gathering: A Personal Anthology of Scottish Poems. London: Polygon Books.

McCullin, D. (2019) Don McCullin. Edited by A. Mehrez. London: Tate Publishing.

Miers, M. (ed.) (2012) Highlands and Islands: A Collection of Poetry of Place. London: Eland Publishing Ltd.

Miller, J. (no date) Unequal Scenes – Locations. Available at: (Accessed: 4 February 2019).

Misrach, R. and Orff, K. (2010) Petrochemical America. New York: Aperture.

Murray, M. (2017) Saddleworth. Amsterdam: Gallery Vassie.

Murray, M. (2017) Saddleworth. Available at: (Accessed: 25 March 2019).

Muybridge, E. (1979) Muybridge’s Complete Human and Animal Locomotion, Volume III. New York: Dover Publications.

Oorthuys, C. and Zoetendaal, W. van. (1992) Cas Oorthuys, guaranteed real Dutch, Congo. Uitgeverij DUO/DUO. Available at: (Accessed: 27 November 2018).

Parisi, C. (2010) Essays and Interview with Daniel Gustav Cramer, Klat Magazine #04. Available at: (Accessed: 1 April 2019).

Pauli, L. (2003) Manufactured Landscapes: the Photographs of Edward Burtynsky. 7th (2014. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada.

Polanyi, M. (1966) The Tacit Dimension. 2009th edn. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Ritchin, F. (2013) Bending the Frame: Photojournalism, Documentary, and the Citizen. New York: Aperture.

Ritchin, F. (2009) After Photography. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc.

Rosenfeldt, J. (no date) The Ship of Fools, 2007 | Julian Rosefeldt. Available at: (Accessed: 17 November 2019).

Rosler, M. (1982) In, Around and Afterthoughts on Documentary Photography in The Contest of Meaning (1992). Edited by R. Bolton. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Schiel, S. (no date) What is Social Landscape Photography? | Teeksa Photography—Skip Schiel. Available at: (Accessed: 13 August 2018).

Sekula, A. (1982) ‘On the Invention of Photographic Meaning’, in Burgin, V. (ed.) Thinking Photography. London: Palgrave Macmillan.



Shore, S. (2007) The Nature of Photographs. 2018th edn. London and New York: Phaidon Press.Smiles, S. (no date) ‘Critical Contexts’. Available at: (Accessed: 13 April 2018).

Smith, T. (2007) ‘Repeat Photography as a Method in Visual Anthropology’, Visual Anthropology, 20(2–3), pp. 179–200. doi: 10.1080/08949460601152815.

Snyder, J. and Allen, N. W. (no date) ‘Photography, Vision and Representation’, Critical Inquiry, pp. 141–169.

Solnit, R. (2001) Wanderlust: A History of Walking. London: Penguin Books.

Sonnentag, O. et al. (2012) ‘Digital repeat photography for phenological research in forest ecosystems’, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 152, pp. 159–177. doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.09.009.

Sontag, S. (2004) ‘Regarding the Torture of Others’, The New York Times Magazine, (23 May 2004). Available at: ttps://

Sontag, S. (1977) On Photography. Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin Books Ltd. doi: 10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2.

Southam, J. (2007) The Painter’s Pool. Portland: Nazraeli Press.Southam, J. (2018) The Moth. UK: Mack Books.

Stallabrass, J. (ed.) (2013) Documentary. London, Cambridge: Whitechapel Gallery and MIT Press.

Stanford University and Center for the Study of Language and Information (U.S.) (1997) Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Stanford University. Available at: (Accessed: 21 December 2018).

Sternfeld, J. (1996) On this site : landscape in memoriam. Chronicle Books.

Sternfeld, J. et al. (2009) Walking the High Line.

Steidl.Stichweh, R. (no date) ‘Systems Theory’. Available at: (Accessed: 12 April 2018).

Suzuki, R. (2015) Stream of Consciousness. Tokyo: Edition Nord.

Suzuki, R. (2017) Water Mirror. Tokyo: Case Publishing.

Szarkowski, J. (1966) The Photographer’s Eye. 7th printi. New York: The Museum of Modern Art.

Tagg, J. (1988) The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Thoreau, H. D. (2017) Walking. Los Angeles: Enhanced Media Publishing.

Thoreau, H. D. (2016) Walden. Milton Keynes: Penguin Random House U.K.

Trachtenberg, A. (ed.) (1980) Classic Essays on Photography. Sedgwick, ME: Leet’s Island Books, Inc.

Vartanian, I., Hatanaka, A. and Kambayashi, Y. (2006) Setting Sun: Writings by Japanese Photographers. New York: Aperture.

von Bertalanffy, L. (2008) ‘An Outline of General System Theory’, Emergence: Complexity & Organization. Emergent Publications, 10(2), pp. 103–123. Available at:

Walker, J. A. (1997) The Camerawork essays: context and meaning in photography ’, in Evans, J. (ed.). London: Rivers Oram, pp. 52–63.

Webb, R., Boyer, D. and Turner, R. (2010) Repeat Photography: Methods and Applications in the Natural Sciences. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Wells, L. (2015) Photography: a critical introduction. Fifth. London ; New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Wells, L. (2011) Land matters: landscape photography, culture and identity. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris.

Wells, L. (2011) Land matters: landscape photography, culture and identity. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris. Available at:

Wells, L. and Standing, S. (eds) (2009) Relic. First. Plymouth, UK: University of Plymouth Press.

Whitman, W. (2006) The Complete Poems of Walt Whitman. Edited by S. Matterson. Ware, Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Poetry Library.

Wright, J. (2017) Cubby’s Tarn. Purton, Wiltshire: JW Editions.

Yates, M. (2019) Week Seventeen Reflections – Cromarty – Yatesweb. Available at: (Accessed: 3 December 2019).

Zier, J. L. and Baker, W. L. (2006) ‘A century of vegetation change in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado: An analysis using repeat photography’, Forest Ecology and Management, 228(1–3), pp. 251–262. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2006.02.049.

Explorations on the Concepts of Place and Non-Place

Place and the concept of place has become an important part of my photographic work. I had a commonly held simplistic view of place for most of my life. Certainly, there were places to which I had a strong connection, and which felt quite different than places for which a connection was less significant or absent, but I didn’t really think beyond the physicality of the space.  A perfect example would be the difference in how I feel about the two places I own homes.  Dornoch in northeast Scotland is where my heart truly lives.  Of the 26 places I have lived in my life it is more home to me than any of the others.  I feel healthier mentally, spiritually and physically there.  In contrast, my South Carolina home is lovely, but I feel no connection to the place or anyone there.  I feel as alien there as if I had set foot on Mars and I am uncomfortable there. But the concept of place has expanded for me by reading the works of Marc Augé (2008) and Jim Brogden (2019) and I have found it has been key to informing my work in Coul Links.

We commonly consider place in terms of the physical; a space occupied by something or someone. Historically, before people were able to travel physically across the globe in hours and virtually across the globe in milliseconds, place was very much about physical proximity, about connectedness to one’s surroundings.  Marc Augé (2008, VIII-IX) notes that while “there are no ‘non-places’ in the absolute sense of the term” there are non-places in anthropological and sociological contexts and that ‘globalisation’ contributes to “unprecedented extension of spaces of circulation, consumption and communication.”

While Augé principally analyses place in terms of globalisation and urbanisation in a phenomenon he terms ‘supermodernity’, Brogden’s view is narrower and focuses on what he terms the ‘cultural erasure of the city’. Both accept that place has elements beyond the physical which are encompassed in the sociological and anthropological significance of spaces.  Both illustrate how more and more ‘places’ have become ‘non-places’ while also accepting that that status is both fluid and bi-directionally reversible, and to a degree subject to individual perception.

“If a place can be defined as relational, historical and concerned with identity, then a space which cannot be defined as relational, or historical, or concerned with identity will be a non-place. The hypothesis advanced here is that supermodernity produces non-places…” (Augé, 2008: 63)

“We should add that the same things apply to the non-place as to the place.  It never exists in pure form: places reconstitute themselves in it; relations are restored and resumed in it; … Place and non-place are rather like opposed polarities: the first is never completely erased, the second never totally completed; they are like palimpsests on which the scrambled game of identity and relations are ceaselessly rewritten. (Augé, 2008: 64)

Jim Brogden’s photographic practice focuses currently on the urban landscape and in particular those places which are essentially holes in the urban landscape; places where people once had a presence, and which have been abandoned.  He writes, “By discussing the significance of photographic representations in revealing the meanings attached to the visual evidence of human agency in non-place, I hope to show what people leave behind provides us with important information about why they left it and what it meant to them.” (Brogden, 2019: 111) Brogden’s notion of non-place differs from Augé’s, but both are rooted in the anthropological and sociological significance associated with spaces.

Both use the term palimpsest in their respective discussions of place and non-place.  Coul Links is a landscape that could well be described as a palimpsest.  It’s has had many uses inscribed upon it over the centuries. It has been a battlefield twice, in the 13th century and again in the 18th just before Culloden, a bombing range during WWII and a burial ground for surplus military equipment, grazing land, farming land, shooting ground, a tip, a tree plantation that has been harvested, home to a railroad through it, golf holes near the Embo school, a Site of Special Scientific Interest, a Special Protection Area and a RAMSAR Wetlands of International Importance treaty site, and likely other uses I have not yet discovered.  It was at one time key to the survival of many residents in the village of Embo, but in the past 50 years has lost much of its former significance to the local population.  It has fallen to neglect and the links land itself sees little human use. Those few who do still use the land do so almost exclusively at the perimeters and then only just.

I believe it is fair to argue that Coul Links while once a place of great significance to the villagers of Embo who survived from the land and the sea, the death of the herring fishing industry and the decline of the need to live from the land caused by taking jobs further afield has decreased the significance of Coul Links and it has become by either Augé’s or Brogden’s definitions a non-place.  It has been largely abandoned and left to rewild and to those that do visit it is often a transient interaction at the fringes.  But as described above, place and non-place are never fully formed and there remain some few people who have a deep and enduring relationship with Coul Links and for who it remains very much, a place.

I came to Coul Links in response to the new significance being attributed to it when a proposal was put forth to add to the palimpsest and build a world class golf course on the site. I came as a stranger, with no sense of its history and with some degree of concern for its future, but over the course of the two years I have spent roaming and photographing Coul Links, I have developed a deep connection to and affection for the uniqueness and complexity of the land itself and its multi-faceted history.  I am endlessly fascinated by the chameleon like response to the force of nature the landscape exhibits.  I am disturbed by the hyperbole and misinformation promulgated by the groups who have opposed the development and their failure to recognise the complex history the site has had.  And I am aware too of the environmental issues extant at this point in human history, both globally and at this place specifically, and the need to proceed carefully and sensitively with any future development.

The proposal to develop Coul Links has to a degree re-established its significance anthropologically and sociologically and begun the process of its re-emergence as a place.  It is something of a reversal of the phenomena described by both Augé and Brogden who note more places becoming non-places in modern society and this I think is an interesting point to note.  It has altered my thinking about Coul Links and when I discussed this point during my talk during my recent exhibition, I found it was the point that resonated most with the people in attendance.  Virtually all local people, they recognised how Coul Links had lost its significance over the years and the how the prospect of another layer on the palimpsest had altered the way in which the site was perceived.



Auge, M. (2008) Non-Places: An Introduction to Supermodernity. London, New York: Verso.

Brogden, J. (2019) Photography and the Non-Place: The Cultural Erasure of the City. First. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.


Pictures at an Exhibition: Review of Mick Yates’ Unfinished Stories

Unfinished Stories: Cambodia from Genocide to Hope by photographer Mick Yates opened this week at the Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Society.


It is not an exhibition of ‘dark tourism’ and avoids the tropes commonly associated with stories about genocides. Rather one is confronted with a series of indexical infrared landscape photographs whose indexicality reveals exactly nothing of the story to the point that they almost become abstractions.  It would be quite easy to dismiss them as “just another landscape photo”, but that would be a mistake. They are each, on the surface, stunning beautiful images. They completely belie the fact that beneath the surface of both the image and the place itself horrific things have happened.  The incongruity is arresting. The viewer is pulled between the abstractness of the imagery and the concreteness of the accompanying Khmer and English words, which too are non sequiturs having nothing whatever to do with the photograph itself.

The photographer, through his long involvement with Cambodia and people like Keo Sarath and Beng Simeth involved in the rebuilding of the education system there, has captured in his imagery a metaphor of the situation in Cambodia today.  On the surface it is a beautiful and vibrant place, but just beneath the surface lurk and linger remnants of the horrors of the past, not only for those who were fortunate enough to have survived the atrocities of the Khmer Rouge and for whom the memories are all too real, but for generations that have come since who had no first-hand experience. It sits like the skeleton in the cupboard everyone is too afraid to open.  It is like a filter that cannot be removed from the Cambodian lens and it still colours day to day life in palpable but mostly unspoken ways.

Yates’ interviews with long time friends, colleagues and survivors who now after more than 40 years are telling their stories for the first time allow us to begin to understand the horrors and the aftereffects of the genocide on Cambodia and its people.  It allows us to begin to make sense of the non-sequiturs in the images and accompanying words.


This is an extensively researched project and the history placards and displayed ephemera help to contextualise the exhibition.  The book delves into even more depth on the history of the genocide, and its impacts on specific people as related through their stories of survival and the work they have undertaken since to rebuild an education system that was a principal target of the Khmer Rouge genocide. It is a beautifully designed and printed book which, while written in English, was printed in Cambodia as an important element of Yates’ overall project.

The final incongruity involves the venue itself, decorated for the Festive season while displaying an exhibition about the Cambodian Khmer Rouge genocide and its aftermath. Yet perhaps it too can be viewed through a metaphorical lens in that this season represents rebirth and renewal and is itself a great symbol of hope. Hope is what Yates, his family and Cambodian friends and colleagues like Keo Sarath and Beng Simeth have been trying to build for the past 20 years and that work continues.

Ashley Rose

6 December 2019


Creating the Immersive Experience

One of the top priorities for my FMP exhibition was to create an immersive environment that engaged the senses and the imaginations of my viewers. To achieve this goal would require the right space combined with the right technology both married to a carefully curated collection of images and sounds presented/ displayed in just the right way.

The path to this goal began with capturing images, moving and still, that would support the final vision.  It also entailed recording hours of the sounds of the natural environment that could then be mixed and added to the video footage.

Upon entering the darkened hall, the visitor immediately encounters the sounds of Coul Links playing throughout the hall; surf, wind, birds, and sheep.  The large display fixtures stand between the doorway and the far end of the hall mostly blocking the view of the large cinema screen.  On each side of every fixture are photographs, individually placed and lit so that the viewer is presented with only the one image at eye level and of a size that evokes a sense of being in situ at Coul Links. The fixtures are set in a diamond pattern requiring the viewer to make their way around the perimeters of each unit and the installation as a whole.  On three walls, purposefully placed to emulate a random encounter, are the miniature collages of fauna and flora which draw the viewer in close to examine what they have found.  These miniatures seem in scale with the larger landscapes as if they belong together. The outer perimeter of the installation has photographs with views one would see from the perimeters of Coul Links just in the way that most people encounter the place.  On the inner walls of the installation are photographs of places unfamiliar and unidentified on the interior of Coul Links that few people would know or would have encountered.

After reaching the far end of the display fixtures, the visitor is presented with a large cinema screen on which video taken from a drone across and around the entire expanse of Coul Links is playing.  Sofas and tables and chairs invite the viewer to sit and relax while watching the videos and feel as though they are floating along above the links.

By creating an exhibition environment that stimulated visual, aural and proprioceptive senses, the immersive experience was achieved.

Beneath the Noise -3
Mick Yates – 2019
Rose – 2019


Rose – 2019
Rose – 2019
Beneath the Noise -5
Mick Yates – 2019
Beneath the Noise -19
Mick Yates – 2019

Exhibition Comments and Reviews

During the two day Dornoch exhibition a comment book was available for visitors to record their thoughts after seeing the exhibition.  Here are a selection of the comments received.

Rose – 2019

“The essence of Coul Links is captured in every sense.” Mike H.

“Totally worthwhile historical document of a treasured spot in this area. Love the smaller collages of the wildlife against the larger landscape pictures.”  Matthew Harris, Professional Photographer

“From someone who knows Coul Links intimately, you have done the most wonderful job of capturing its unique essence.”  Viki M.

“What an amazing exhibition.” Lynne Mahoney, Curator – History Links Museum

“Thankyou for breathing life into Coul Links! You have seen its hidden magic…”  Jenny T.

“What a great exhibition!  I applaud your efforts to widen folk’s perceptions both specifically of Coul Links and more broadly about the whole concept of ‘sense of place’.” John Alderson, Chairman – East Sutherland Camera Club

“An incredibly well thought out and presented exhibition” Mike T.

“I loved the way you presented your photographs, it made them appear so real, like you’re actually there.” Alex D.

“A wonderful exhibition giving a unique insight into the flora, fauna and dunes which goes largely unobserved.” Anonymous

“You have revealed the unsung beauty of an otherwise ‘unknown’ landscape.” Alison D.

“An excellent display. Having been shown around the proposed golf course, your video has given me a new dimension to contemplate the development.  I look forward to seeing your further work on this wonderful site.” Barry K.

“Great set of images of a complex area giving me lots of food for thought on its future ecology.” Stan H.


Additionally, a couple of people took the time to write more extensive reviews about the show.

Mick Yates’ review can be found Beyond the Noise review by Mick Yates.

Patrick Argyle an avid local amateur photographer wrote the following review.

“I think there were two aspects of this exhibition that came together to make it work so well: the quality of the work on display; the way the work was presented. I greatly admired and appreciated the quality of the work, especially the still photographs. The images were beautiful and beautifully printed and presented. The use of images   of different sizes and presenting them either individually or in groups was very effective.  The layout of the displays throughout the room was done in such a way that I could spend time studying each individual section before being led on to the next in a natural and relaxed way. There was a real flow from one area to the next. I felt the use of   different media to present material was handled very cleverly, exploiting the strong point of each:

  • a small screen video presentation on entering the gallery gave an excellent overview and background and history of to Coul Links;
  • photos arranged to great effect, some large scale showing wide areas of landscaped conveying the atmosphere of the location, other large ones of small areas of the links showing detail of the land and it’s contents;
  • other walls displayed boards on which were presented multiple miniature photos on certain topics such as flora and fauna;
  • a projection wall divided in to quadrants, onto each of which was projected, simultaneously aerial film taken by drone  of the land showing it in the four seasons of the year.

Overall, I found the exhibition much more interesting than I had expected and you showed me beauty in Coul Links I did not expect to see.”

Matt Sillars – Lecturer in Photography University of Highlands and Islands & Chair, FLOW Photofest

Reflections on ‘Beyond the Noise’

This body of work takes an anti-essentialist perspective. It refuses to walk the easy path and set out opposing positions, in relation to the development of the links, by defining the characteristics of each and placing them in opposition to each other – and then simply photographing the stereotype. The artificial construction of identity, as ‘developer’ and ‘environmentalist’, is deliberately disrupted and the links are presented as a complex space with a complex set of uses by individuals, rather than by ‘bodies’ of people who are ideological positioned in a debate.

Seeing the links as a historical space and not simply as a contested contemporary site, reveals its relationship to people over time and acknowledges that it is not, and never has been, a space easily defined by the broad brush strokes of heritage studies.   In the photographs are evidence of human intervention, from the buildings, fence posts and pathways, to the plantations, monuments and open ground.  Each indexical of people engaged in labour, industry and lives lived. Although seemingly passive landscapes sculpted by the elements, they evoke a range of paradigms which privilege people over nature and speak of the dynamic relationship between land and people – the definition of ‘place’.

Foucault discusses heterotopias as places which exist in the world, but which are connected in ways to other places and spaces, by ritual, by use, by assemblage. The photographs of the links inscribe hetertopias of time and space. Time, where the landscape has collected the past and represents it in snippets and glimpses. Thus, the past is always present in a natural museum, whose rooms and glass cases are the dunes, grasses, embankments and plantations. Space, where the fragments glimpsed are of different uses, are different spaces – of industry, or leisure, or travel, of work.

The body of work challenges the normative view of the ‘environment in need of protection’, and through the use of video and drones, plays with understandings of reality in a vein similar to Baudrillard’s hyperreality, where the difference between fiction and reality is blurred. Understanding is mediated by drone and digital technologies and the links are artificially reproduced in ways that play with the internet mediated campaign instigated to ‘save’ them.  ‘Beyond the Noise’ references not just the ideological noise, but the digital noise of hyperreality and conspicuous environmentalism, which has almost replaced conspicuous consumption as the ‘right’ of the middle classes.

The body of work, quite bravely, argues that the essentialist nature of the debate is irrelevant and actually unworthy of the links, which have a heritage and have a future regardless of the slice of reality we are confronting today, now.

All comments and reviews published with permission.

Display Design and Construction

When it became apparent I needed to have display fixtures that would enhance the viewing of my photographs and contribute to the immersive experience that I was trying to create, I had to determine what would be necessary, create a design and then either find someone who could fabricate them for me or a place where I could build them.  I also had to work out the lighting requirements and then source and purchase suitable fixtures as a well as a way to mount them.

Obviously, the size of the venue and the space available was a limiting factor in the size and placement of the fixtures.  I also wanted to produce large format prints at least A1 and potentially A0 which meant the faces of the display units needed to be at least 1 metre wide and for the lighting to be effective and safely out of viewers way the top of the need to be at least 2 metres high and optimally 2.4 metres high which would allow the photos to be further isolated from the surroundings in the viewer’s perspective, and would also minimise cuts since the stock size for ply panels is 2.4 metres by 1.2 metres.

Building these fixtures for the 13 large format prints and 3 collages of miniatures plus the video trailer that would be playing on a monitor as the first element of the exhibit would require a substantial amount of material, time and expense to construct so I didn’t want them to be a one-off use and needed to design them to be reconfigurable, transportable, and reusable. They also needed to be stable when erected so as not to create any health or safety issues and cost had to be a consideration.

I created design sketches and detailed dimensions as a basis for discussing the project with area joiners.  I quickly discovered that many of the areas joiners are flush with work and not available to take on my project and it also became apparent that only a joiner with a workshop could produce them with he consistency that would be required to assemble the panel configurations flexibly. Fortunately, I did find a joinery firm that would take on the work and which would allow me to participate in the construction.

The design consisted of 36 1m x 1.2m panels, 2 of which would be fixed together along the 1m side by a piano hinge to allow the panels to fold when not in use and unfold to the full 2.4m height by 1m width when in use.  This facilitated transport, handling and storage.  The original design had the panels then joined together in venue assembly with a series of loose pin hinges that would connect one panel to the next and allow for various configurations.  Unfortunately the variation in the wood and the tolerances required to mount the hinges so that any panel could fix to any other panel proved insurmountable and an alternative had to be derived.  I amended the design to use 45 x 45mm blocks from the same material used to construct the frames and bolt the panels together.  I resulted in limiting the future configurations to either 90 degree or 180 degree assemblies, but that shouldn’t be too limiting.


Once the panels were assembled, they had to be painted.  I chose to use a matte black paint to isolate the photo and minimise any glare from the lights.  I was able to source 5w LED spotlights that fixed with spring clamps.  I calculated that if they were mounted at the top of the 2.4m panel and extended out 750mm they would cast the correct amount of light on each photo without blowing out the surrounding area.  Each fixture would have a photo on each side necessitating 4 lights per fixture.  Each light had only a 1m cord so I still had to work out how to get mains power to fixtures.  Fortunately, the Dornoch Social Club had a number of overhead switched outlet that had been intended to service stage lighting at one time and with the help of a local electrician we were able to wire flex cable from power strips to the switch outlets.

Once the fixtures were assembled at the venue and tested it was time to hang photos  and get on with the show.

All photos Ashley Rose 2019

Venue Selection

The choice of venue was a critical determinant in the in the design and curation of the exhibition.  There were two underlying factors that were key to and a number of secondary and tertiary factors that would weigh in on the final choice.

First, I felt strongly that the venue had to be reasonably local because the subject was principally one with strong local interest and those whose interests were most vested in the outcomes should have both first and easiest access to seeing the work.  Second, the venue had to support the creation of the immersive experience I hoped to create.

With those as the initial primary criteria, three possible venues were candidates; the Dornoch Social Club in the centre of Dornoch, The Embo Old School 3 miles to the north and immediately adjacent to Coul Links, and the Carnegie Hall in Clashmore 3 miles to the south which was also the site of the Government’s Enquiry Hearings in February and March of this year.

Dornoch Social Club – photo courtesy Mick Yates 2019


The Embo Old School – Rose 2019


Carnegie Hall Clashmore – Rose 2018



Additional evaluation criteria

Factor Dornoch Embo Clashmore
Capacity for 100 people Yes No Yes
Ability to be darkened sufficient for video Yes No Yes
Wall space suitable for hanging No No No
Audio and visual equipment installed on-site Yes No No
Lighting conducive to exhibit No Yes No
Distance from most likely visitors Best Mid Worst
Parking Marginal but most could walk Limited Extremely limited
Entry flow control Yes No Yes
Kitchen/ Catering capacity Yes Yes Yes
Availability Limited Limited Limited


Dornoch Social Club interior – Rose 2019
Embo Old School interior – Rose 2019
Carnegie Hall Clashmore – Rose 2018

All of these spaces are community assets and as such are heavily scheduled on a continuing basis for a variety of uses.  Scheduling was going to be a challenge at all of them.

Embo was recently renovated but the space was too small, was largely glass walls with no ability to darken the space, and video would have only been possible on the large television.

Clashmore is a lovely hall and certainly large enough to have allowed flexibility in the exhibition design.  It would have required hiring audio visual equipment and the colour of the walls in the hall plays havoc with the way the photographs would be seen.  It was also the furthest from the target audiences and would have required everyone to drive to a place with limited parking.

Based on the considerations above it was clear that no place was perfect, but the Dornoch Social Club was the best choice for a number of reasons.  Having cinema grade projection and sound systems and the ability to darken the hall was a key factor as was its location relative to most visitors and for me.  It was a space with which I was very familiar and because of my involvement with the organisation that administers it and the cinema club, I  had virtually unlimited access to the DSC as required to measure, plan, and test video whenever the hall was not otherwise occupied.  It also had an entry foyer adjacent which led into the hall at the end opposite the cinema screen which allowed me to apportion the space and control the flow into the exhibition.  However, lack of suitable wall space and poor lighting dictated that I would have to construct bespoke display fixtures and lighting to control how the work was viewed and to create the immersive experience I was seeking.

The size of the space was only just large enough to accommodate the display fixtures without interfering with the cinema projector, so planning had to be thorough and precise as dis the design and construction of the fixtures. More detail on that process can be found in a subsequent post on the Design and Construction of the displays.

In the end, the venue decision proved a good one and the extensive planning and subsequent execution resulted in a very successful event. It was unfortunate the venue was only available for two days, but subsequent to the Dornoch exhibition, the Embo venue asked me to bring the exhibition there.  It required a different approach and resulted in a more traditional gallery type exhibition, but it did get the work exposed to an additional number of people over the 2+ weeks it was on display.



Artist’s Talk

At the opening night of my exhibition, I wanted to talk to my guests for a few minutes about my work, its motivations and my intentions both for the work completed and that yet to be done.  I wrote several pages of text that were organised into 8 topical areas, but it was never my intent to read a speech on the night.  I used the written speech to organise my thoughts and the order in which I wanted to convey them, and to be used on the night as a reminder, a basic road map of what I wanted to say.  Then on the night, I spoke extemporaneously, only referring occasionally to my notes as I shifted to the next topic.

I received a great deal of positive feedback on the talk and it was interesting how much the discussion of “place” resonated with people.  The background on my work and how it was presented was also cited as helping people to better appreciate the exhibition.

I am posting here the link to the edited video as well as the original “script” I drafted.  The talk clearly follows the intent of the script, but is by no means verbatim.

Dornoch Exhibition Artist’s Talk


Prepared Remarks

  1. Thank you for coming tonight. I am honoured that so many of you have taken time to come see my work and, am humbled by the support of you and many others this community we have come to feel is our home.
  2. I am very pleased to be able to share with you some of the work I have been doing. And for those of you who are wondering, 13 photos and a movie: Is that all she’s done in 2 years? I can assure you it is not, and you don’t want to see the hundreds and hundreds of photos and videos I have amassed in the last 2 years.  Perhaps later when this story has an ending there will be an opportunity to tell it in full, but for now…
  3. Most of you know of me as a golfer, a former Naval Aviator and as a photographer, and as someone who is passionate about Dornoch and the Highlands, but probably not too many of you know that my undergraduate degree was in Biology. It is precisely this confluence of experience and interests that led me to focus my MA work on Coul Links.
  4. When I began the MA programme, the timing of the decision process was such that had the original approval stood there would have been a body of work showing how Coul Links adapts to both natural and man-made or anthropogenic forces.  As the decision was significantly delayed it became apparent that my project would not reach an ending concurrent with the completion of my MA and while I intend to continue until there is a proper ending to be written, my MA project was going to have to find a way to tell the story “so far”,  and so I have spent a great deal of time getting to know and observing Coul Links from a perspective that not too many others have.
  5. At its most fundamental, I have undertaken a study of a place and have been in a sense surveilling it regularly for the past two years. I have done my best to observe and document from an objective point of view; to look past the controversy and to get to know Coul Links as it is.  We live in a world that seems increasingly bent on hyperbole. I believe, however, that things are rarely ever as bad or as good as they first seem, or as opposing sides would argue.  When I looked Beyond the Noise what seemed certain is that Coul Links exist today despite the controversy and it will change with or without development.  And the truth is none of us can know to what degree the concerns or hopes will be realised until sometime well into the future.  Coul Links are ever changing and like most natural environments adapt constantly. Nature has a remarkable capacity to respond to and overcome the most severe impositions and yet we live in a time where the cumulative effects of human impositions are stressing our planet.
  6. Along the way I made some interesting observations and discoveries and came across some research that had relevance to my work, and without getting too academic I want to spend a few minutes to discuss the concept of place.Place is more than physical existence and it has anthropological and sociological significance.  In our busy, ever more mobile world, a phenomenon has been observed that we move through many spaces without really registering where we are.  Marc Auge introduced the concept of “non-places”, spaces we transit, like railway platforms, airport transit halls, shopping malls etc.  while physically being somewhere, they are spaces to which we pay little attention and about which we often are not aware.  Jim Brogden takes a slightly different view and ascribes non-place status to abandoned or neglected urban areas, the voids amidst the inhabited and used areas.Coul Links was a largely unknown space, even to local people, and it was only after a development was proposed that it gained significance and went from being a non-place to a place.  For most of the 90,000 people who signed a petition, they will never visit or know Coul Links as a place.  It is an interesting reversal of the phenomenon, where a non-place has become a place.
  7. The more time I spent at Coul Links and the more I came to know it the more significance it held for me personally. I observed how people approach and use Coul Links and in truth how few people use it.  And most of those who do approach it only from the perimeters and limited probing from the south.  Very rarely did I observe anyone inside the perimeter zones, and as a consequence, my observations and points of view provide perspectives most will not have seen before.  I flew a drone on a regular basis with pre-planned mission profiles that allowed for photographs and video of the same places from the same vantage points month on month providing a basis for comparison.  I walked and explored areas that most others will not have gone and discovered places that were fascinating to observe and photograph.You may have noticed that the exhibition reflects these aspects.  The outer walls of the columns are photographs from the perimeters, recognisable as being Coul Links, while the square format photos on the interior walls are intimate landscapes that do not necessarily reveal their location as Coul Links though in fact they are. The aerial videos provide a unique perspective that reveals the complexity of Coul Links and shows how dramatically the landscape changes from season to season and year to year.But it is important to acknowledge that for those that know and use Coul Links,  each will attribute their own significance and have a unique relationship with Coul Links.  This place has been many things over the centuries, and it has held significance of different sorts to different people over that time.  It is wild, but not pristine and untouched. Just as it has been a battlefield, grazing land, a shooting ground, had a railway pass through it, been used as a tip, a tree plantation, a place for dog-walking, bird watching and quiet contemplation, and it may have even had golf played upon the links ground hundreds of years ago, I believe it can and will continue to accommodate multiple uses and hold significance for people who truly come to know it.
  8. I would be remiss without acknowledging people who have helped make this night and this journey possible. Richard MacKenzie helped me and turned me loose in his workshop to build these wonderful display fixtures.  Jim Campbell turned up early this morning to help work out the electrical distribution for the lighting of the displays. Scotty Atchison and the Royal Dornoch Golf Club for the use of space in the Greenkeeper’s Shed to paint the displays. John McNaught at Highland Print Studio printed and mounted the large format photographs on display tonight.  Thanks to the Dornoch Cinema club for the use of their equipment and to Carol Mackay and her team from the Courthouse Café for the refreshments and service this evening. I also need to thank my classmates, one of whom, Mick Yates came up all the way from Bath to be here, for their unending support and encouragement throughout the programme.And most importantly, my husband Jerry Horak who has been my most ardent supporter and assistant regardless of what “cunning plans” I concoct.  He has schlepped camera kit, put up with my long days and late nights studying and the impact that had on our golf  and every other aspect of our lives together, and done everything possible to support me and make my life easier over not only the past 2 years but the past 16 years.
    And I want to thank you all again for coming tonight. I am really pleased to have you here and hope you enjoy the evening.